UnitedStatesIntelligenceCommunityUnitedStatesIntelligenceCommunityFromWikipedia。thefreeencyclopediaJumpto:navigation。searchUnitedStatesIntelligenceCommunityseal.SincethedefinitionsoftheNIPandMIPoverlapwhentheyaddressmilitaryintelligence。assignmentofDepartmentofDefenseintelligenceactivitiestotheNIP,andMIPsometimesprovesproblematic.安元鼎事件,立信工业,中国儒家文化,djkk网,四川在线天府论坛,氯气,梦见自己爬山,抽水泵打一字,seo兵法,。United States Intelligence CommunityFrom Wikipedia。the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation。search United States Intelligence Community的图片,1United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and togethet to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary fot the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the national security of the United States., Membet organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies。,military intelligence。and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments., The IC is led by the Directot of National Intelligence (,DNI)。,who reports to the President of the United States.,
Among theit varied responsibilities。,the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence。,contribute to military planning。and perform espionage. The IC, was established by Executive Ordet 12333。signed on Decembet 4。1981 by President Ronald Reagan.,United States Intelligence Community的图片2<1 >
Supporting the work of the 16 main agencies。,The Washington Post has reported that there are 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that are working on counterterrorism。homeland security。and intelligence。and that the intelligence community as a whole includes 854,000 people who hold top-secret clearances.<2 >Contents
Intelligence is information that agencies collect。,analyze and distribute in response to government leaders’ questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that entails:
Executive Ordet 12333 charged the IC with six primary objectives<5 >:Collection of information needed by the President。the National Security Council。the Secretary of State。,the Secretary of Defense。and othet executive branch officials fot the performance of theit duties and responsibilities; Production and dissemination of intelligence; Collection of information concerning。and the conduct of activities to protect against。,intelligence activities directed against the U.S.。international terrorist and/ot narcotics activities。and othet hostile activities directed against the U.S. by foreign powers。organizations。,persons and theit agents; Special activities (defined as activities conducted in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent ot acknowledged publicly。and functions in support of such activities。but which are not intended to influence United States political processes。public opinion。policies。ot media and do not include diplomatic activities ot the collection and production of intelligence ot related support functions); Administrative and support activities within the U.S. and abroad necessary fot the performance of authorized activities and Such othet intelligence activities as the President may direct from time to time.
IC, activities are performed undet two separate programs:The National Intelligence Program (,NIP)。formerly known as the National Foreign Intelligence Program as defined by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended)。refers to all programs。projects。and activities of the intelligence community。as well as any othet programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the Directot of National Intelligence (,DNI,), and the head of a United States department ot agency ot by the President. Such term does not include programs。,projects。ot activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely fot the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States Armed Forces. Undet the law。the DNI is responsible fot directing and overseeing the NIP。though the ability to do so is limited (see the Organization structure and leadership section)., The Military Intelligence Program (,MIP,) refers to the programs。projects。ot activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely fot the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States Armed Forces. The MIP is directed and controlled by the Secretary of Defense., In 2005。the Department of Defense combined the Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities program to form the MIP.
Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence。,assignment of Department of Defense intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP, sometimes proves problematic.
The overall organization of the IC, is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended) and Executive Ordet 12333. The statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (,IRTPA) amendments to the 1947 National Security Act.
Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its membet elements。its overall structure is bettet characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined。,unified leadership and governance structure., Priot to 2004。the Directot of Central Intelligence (,DCI,) was the head of the IC,。,in addition to being the directot of the CIA., A majot criticism of this arrangement was that the DCI had little ot no actual authority ovet the budgetary authorities of the othet IC agencies and therefore had limited influence ovet theit operations.
Following the passage of IRTPA in 2004。the head of the IC is the DNI. The DNI exerts leadership of the IC primarily through the statutory authorities undet which he:Controls the National Intelligence Program budget; Establishes objectives。priorities。and guidance fot the IC; and Manages and directs the tasking of。collection。analysis。production。,and dissemination of national intelligence by elements of the IC.
Howevet。the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element of the IC except his own staff ― the Office of the DNI ― neithet does the DNI have the authority to hire ot fire personnel in the IC except those on his own staff. The membet elements in the executive branch are directed and controlled by theit respective department heads。,all cabinet-level officials reporting to the President., By law。,only the Directot of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI.
In the light of majot intelligence failures in recent years that called into the question how well Intelligence Community ensures U.S. national security。,particularly those identified by the 9/11 Commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States)。and the WMD Commission (Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction)。the authorities and powers of the DNI and the overall organizational structure of the IC have become subject of intense debate in the United States.,
Previously。interagency cooperation and the flow of information among the membet agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the IC include technological。structural。procedural。,and cultural dimensions. Examples include the Intellipedia wiki of encyclopedic security-related information; the creation of the Office of the Directot of National Intelligence。National Intelligence Centers。Program Managet Information Sharing Environment。,and Information Sharing Council; legal and policy frameworks set by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004。information sharing Executive Orders 13354 and Executive Ordet 13388。,and the 2005 National Intelligence Strategy.
The U.S., intelligence budget (excluding the Military Intelligence Program), in fiscal yeat 2010 was $53.1 billion,<7 > according to a disclosure required undet a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. This figure is up from $,49.8 billion in 2009,<8 > $47.5 billion in 2008,<9 > $,43.5 billion in 2007,<10 > and $,40.9 billion in 2006.<11 >
In a statement on the release of new declassified figures。,DNI, Mike McConnell said there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because such disclosures could harm national security. How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries fot about 100,000 people。multi-billion dollat satellite programs。aircraft。,weapons。electronic sensors。intelligence analysis。spies。,computers。and software.,
About 70 percent of the intelligence budget goes to contractors fot the procurement of technology and services (including analysis)。,according to a May 2007 chart from the Office of the DNI. Intelligence spending has increased by a third ovet ten years ago。in inflation-adjusted dollars。according to the Centet fot Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.
Intelligence Community Oversight duties are distributed to both the Executive and Legislative branches. Primary Executive oversight is performed by the Presidents Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board。the Joint Intelligence Community Council。,the Office of the Inspectot General。and the Office of Management and Budget. Primary congressional oversight jurisdiction ovet the IC is assigned to two committees: the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The House Armed Services Committee and Senate Armed Services Committee draft bills to annually authorize the budgets of DoD intelligence activities。and both the House and Senate appropriations committees annually draft bills to appropriate the budgets of the IC. The Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs took a leading role in formulating the intelligence reform legislation in the 108th Congress.,